The State is bordered by Jammu & Kashmir on North, Punjab on West and South-West, Haryana on South, Uttar Pradesh on South-East and China on the East.
The earliest known inhabitants of the region were tribals called Dasas. Later, Aryans came and they assimilated in the tribes. In the later centuries, the hill chieftains accepted suzerainty of the Mauryan empire, the Kaushans, the Guptas and Kanuaj rulers. During the Mughal period, the Rajas of the hill states made some mutually agreed arrangements which governed their relations. In the 19th century, Ranjit Singh annexed/subjugated many of the states. When the British came, they defeated Gorkhas and entered into treaties with some Rajas and annexed the kingdoms of others. The situation more or less remained unchanged till 1947. After Independence, 30 princely states of the area were united and Himachal Pradesh was formed on 15th April, 1948. With the recognition of Punjab on 1st November, 1966, certain areas belonging to it were also included in Himachal Pradesh. On 25th January, 1971, Himachal Pradesh was made a full-fledged State.
General Latitude 30 22′ 40″ N to 33 12′ 40″ N Longitude 75 45′ 55″ E to 79 04′ 20″ E Altitude (From mean sea Level) 350 meter to 6975 meter Population [1991-Census] Total 60,70,305 persons – 2001 Census; Male: 50.8% Female: 49.2% Urban 0.45 million persons Rural 4.72 million persons Geographical Area  55,673 sq. km Density (per Sq. Km.)  93 Females per 1000 Males  976 Birth Rate (per 1000) [1996(P)] 23.0 Death Rate (per 1000) [1996(P)] 8.0 Administrative Structure  State Capital Shimla No. of Districts 12 No. of Tehsils 71 No. of Sub Divisions 50 No. of Blocks 72 No. of Nagar Panchyats 28 No. of Gram Panchyats [Dec.1997] 2922 No. of Villages 19388 No. of Towns 48 Lok Sabha 4 Rajya Sabha 3 No.of Assembly Constituencies 68 Development Indicators State Capital Shimla No. of Districts 12 No. of Tehsils 71 No. of Sub Divisions 50 No. of Blocks 72 No. of Nagar Panchyats 28 No. of Gram Panchyats [Dec.1997] 2922 No. of Villages 19388 No. of Towns 48 Lok Sabha 4 Rajya Sabha 3 No.of Assembly Constituencies 68 Climate Temperature Summer 21 Celsius to 30 Celsius Winters 10 Celsius to 20 Celsius Average Rainfall 1140 mm Average Relative humidity 61% Sunshine 7.4 hrs a day Evaporation 3.3 mm Forest Cover [1996-97] Reserved Forests Area 1896 sq.kms. Protected Forests Area 33004 sq.kms. Unclassed Forest Area 930 sq.kms. Other Forests Area 405 sq.kms. Forests not under control of forest Deptt. 751 sq.kms. No. of Wild Life Sanctuaries 32
There are three airports in the State and two airports in Punjab and Chandigarh are also nearby.
The Shimla Airport is well connected with both Chandigarh and Delhi by air. The distance about 12 kms from the airport to Shimla can conveniently be covered by road. Other airports in the state are Kangra (Gaggal) Airport at Kangra and Kullu Airport at Kullu.
Apart from these, the International Airport Raja Sansi at Amritsar and Chandigarh Airport is also nearby.
Apart from Indian Airlines, some Private Airways also operate regular flights to Himachal Pradesh.
Airport Authority of India
Rail Heads in Himachal Pradesh :
Kalka Shimla. Pathankot- Joginder Nagar (Narrow Gauge)
Major Rail Heads in Surrounding States :
State of Himachal Pradesh is well connected through an efficient road network.
Himachal Road Transport Corporation
Telecom Network in HP
The State has an excellent telecommunications infrastructure. With N x 2 mbps connectivity, the total length of OFC in the State as on 31.3.2005 was more than 8500 Kms which is probably the highest density of OFC penetration per unit area as compared to any other States in India. Almost all the cable used in the telephone network of the State is optical fibre cable. Telecom Network of Different Service Providers are as follows:
BSNL Network in Himachal Pradesh
AirTel Network in Himachal Pradesh
Reliance Network in Himachal Pradesh